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Middle-Aged Vegetarian Women Are At Higher Risk Of Hip Fracture Compared To Regular Meat-Eaters – The Florida Star

Middle-aged vegetarian women are at higher risk of hip fracture compared to regular meat-eaters, new research revealed.

Using hospital records, the study found that vegetarians had a 33 percent higher risk compared to people who ate meat at least five times a week.

Scientists have said the study does not mean vegetarians should start eating meat again and stressed the need for more research into why they face a higher risk.

James Webster, doctoral researcher and lead author of the study, of the University of Leeds, said: “Our study highlights potential concerns regarding risk of hip fracture in women who have a vegetarian diet.

“However, it is not warning people to abandon vegetarian diets. As with any diet, it is important to understand personal circumstances and what nutrients are needed for a balanced, healthy lifestyle.

A vegan bagel and green smoothie is pictured at vegan cafe No Milk Today on January 27, 2018 in Berlin, Germany. (Photo by Steffi Loos/Getty Images)

“Vegetarian diets can vary widely from person to person and can be healthy or unhealthy, just like diets that include animal products.

“However, it is concerning that vegetarian diets often have lower intakes of nutrients that are linked with bone and muscle health.

“These types of nutrients generally are more abundant in meat and other animal products than in plants, such as protein, calcium and other micronutrients.

“Low intake of these nutrients can lead to lower bone mineral density and muscle mass, which can make you more susceptible to hip fracture risk.

“This makes it especially important for further research to better understand factors driving the increased risk in vegetarians, whether it be particular nutrient deficiencies or weight management, so that we can help people to make healthy choices.”

Vegetarian diets have gained popularity in recent years, with a 2021 YouGov survey putting the size of the U.K. vegetarian population at roughly 5-7 percent.

It is often thought of as being healthier and previous studies have shown that a vegetarian diet can reduce the risks of several chronic diseases including diabetes, heart disease and cancer, compared to omnivorous diets.

There is also a growing clamor to reduce meat consumption globally in order to lower carbon emissions and prevent catastrophic climate change.

Understanding the health effects of a vegetarian diet is therefore becoming increasingly important to public health.

Publishing their results in the journal BMC Medicine, the research team investigated the risk of hip fracture in occasional meat-eaters, pescatarians (people who eat fish but not meat) and vegetarians, compared to regular meat-eaters (people who eat meat at least five times a week).

Over a 20-year period they found 822 hip fractures among 26,318 middle-aged U.K. women – amounting to just over 32 percent.

After adjusting for other factors like smoking and age, vegetarians were the only diet group with an elevated risk of hip fracture.

Professor Janet Cade, the study’s co-author, said: “Hip fracture is a global health issue with high economic costs that causes loss of independence, reduces quality of life, and increases risk of other health issues.

“Plant-based diets have been linked with poor bone health, but there has been a lack of evidence on the links to hip fracture risk.

“This study is an important step in understanding the potential risk plant-based diets could present over the long-term and what can be done to mitigate those risks.”

The research team also found that the average BMI (body mass index) among vegetarians was slightly lower than the average among regular meat-eaters.

Previous research has shown a link between low BMI and a high risk of hip fracture.

Lower BMI can mean people are underweight which can mean poorer bone and muscle health and a higher risk of hip fracture.

In this photo illustration a bacon cheeseburger sandwich and fries are served at a Shake Shack restaurant on May 06, 2022 in Chicago, Illinois. (Photo Illustration by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

Dr. Darren Greenwood, study co-author, added: “This study is just part of the wider picture of diet and healthy bones and muscles in older age.

“Further research is needed to confirm whether there could be similar results in men, to explore the role of body weight, and to identify the reasons for different outcomes in vegetarians and meat-eaters.”

The team used data from the U.K. Women’s Cohort Study, which was set up by the University of Leeds to explore links between diet and chronic disease.

Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire and was validated using a four-day food diary in a subsample of women.

At the time they were recruited into the study, the women ranged in age from 35 to 69.

Produced in association with SWNS.

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climatarian, flexitarian, vegetarian or vegan?

The food we consume has a massive impact on our planet. Agriculture takes up half the habitable land on Earth, destroys forests and other ecosystems and produces a quarter of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Meat and dairy specifically accounts for around 14.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

So changing what we eat can help reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable farming. But there are several “climate-friendly” diets to choose from. The best known are the completely plant-based vegan diet, the vegetarian diet, which also allows eggs and dairy, and the pescetarian diet, which also allows seafood.

There are also “flexitarian” diets, where three quarters of meat and dairy is replaced by plant-based food, or the Mediterranean diet which allows moderate amounts of poultry, pork, lamb and beef. Deciding which diet to choose is not as simple as you might expect.

Let us start with a new fad: the climatarian diet. One version was created by the not-for-profit organisation Climates Network, which says this diet is healthy, climate friendly and nature friendly. According to the publicity “with a simple diet shift you can save a tonne of CO₂ equivalents per person per year” (“equivalents” just means methane and other greenhouse gases are factored in alongside carbon dioxide).

Sounds great, but the diet still allows you to eat meat and other high emission foods such as pork, poultry, fish, dairy products and eggs. So this is just a newer version of the “climate carnivore” diet except followers are encouraged to switch as much red meat (beef, lamb, pork, veal and venison) as possible to other meats and fish.

The diet does, however, encourage you to cut down on meat overall and to choose high-welfare and local meat where possible, while avoiding food waste and choosing seasonal, local foods.

So saving a tonne of carbon dioxide is great but switching to vegetarianism or veganism can save even more. A western standard meat-based diet produces about 7.2 kilograms of CO₂ equivalent per day, while a vegetarian diet produces 3.8 kg and a vegan diet 2.9 kg. If the whole world went vegan it would save nearly 8 billion tonnes CO₂e while even a switch to the Mediterranean diet would still save 3 billion tonnes. That is a saving of between 60% and 20% of all food emissions as which are currently at 13.7 billion tonnes of CO₂e a year.

Bar chart

How much CO2e (in billions of tonnes, or Gt) would be saved if the whole world switched to each of these diets. Terms as defined by CarbonBrief.
Data: IPCC, Author provided

Water and land use

To save our planet, we must also consider both water and land usage. Beef, for instance, needs about 15,000 litres of water per kilo.

Some vegetarian or vegan foods like avocados and almonds also have a huge water footprint, but overall a plant-based diet has about half the water consumption of a standard meat-based diet.

Aerial shot of tractors harvesting

Brazil together with the US produces most of the world’s soy. It’s also a world leader in deforestation.
Alf Ribeiro / shutterstock

A global move away from meat would also free up a huge amount of land, since billions of animals would no longer have to be fed. Soya, for instance, is one of the world’s most common crops yet almost 80% of the world’s soybeans are fed to livestock.

The reduced need for agricultural land would help stop deforestation and help protect biodiversity. The land could also be used to reforest and rewild large areas which would become a natural store of carbon dioxide.

(Mostly) healthier

A plant based diet is also generally healthier. Meat, especially highly processed meat, has been linked to a string of major health issues including high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer.

However, meat, dairy and fish are the main sources of some essential vitamins and minerals such as calcium, zinc, iodine and vitamin B12. A strict vegan diet can put people at risk of deficiencies unless they can have access to particular foods or take supplements. Yet both specialist food and supplements are too expensive for many people around the world and it would be hard to scale up supplements production to provide for billions of extra people.

So a climatarian or flexitarian approach means there are fewer health risks and also allows people to still exercise choice. One study suggests a move to a global plant-based diet could reduce global mortality by up to 10% by 2050.

Nine animals per person per year

One of the issues that seems to be lacking in many food discussions is the ethical dimension. Every year we slaughter 69 billion chickens, 1.5 billion pigs, 0.65 billion turkeys, 0.57 billion sheep, 0.45 billion goats, and 0.3 billion cattle. That is over nine animals killed for every person on the planet per year – all for nutrition and protein which we know can come from a plant-based diet.

Chart of meat production

Poultry production has almost doubled this century, as chicken has raced ahead of pork and beef.
Our World In Data / data: FAO, CC BY-SA

So what is the ideal global diet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce habitat destruction and help you live longer? Well I suggest being an “ultra-flexitarian” – a diet of mostly plant-based foods but one that allows meat and dairy products in extreme moderation, but red and processed meat are completely banned. This would save at least 5.5 billion tonnes of CO₂ equivalent per year (40% of all food emissions), decrease global mortality by 10% and prevent the slaughter of billions of innocent animals.


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Vegetarian women more like to break a hip: study

Woman eating Kale salad.— Unsplash
Woman eating Kale salad.— Unsplash
  • Scientists studied diet and health records of over 26,000 women.
  • Experts suspect vegetarians get insufficient nutrients for bone and muscle health.
  • Study emphasises significance of balanced diet.

A UK study found that vegetarian women were more likely to suffer from hip fractures at an older age than those who ate meat.

Scientists studied the diet and health records of over 26,000 women and concluded that women who did not take any meat were a third more likely to break a hip.

More research needs to be done on why the risk is greater but experts suspect it could be due to vegetarians getting insufficient nutrients for bone and muscle health.

Since meat production is responsible for much of the pollution caused by food production in general, Dr James Webster, a researcher at the University of Leeds, does not discourage vegans, reported The Guardian.

Webster said that vegetarians did not have to give up their diet but just make sure they were planning well and not missing “out on nutrients that you exclude when you don’t eat meat or fish.”

The study published in BMC Medicine emphasises the significance of a balanced diet even though vegetarian diets reduce the risk of obesity, heart diseases, and some cancers.

Webster said that vegetarians had “weaker bones and lower muscle mass due to lower intakes of important nutrients.”

Experts also believe that vegetarians are more likely to have less fat which could act as a cushion in case a person falls. 

For bone health, Websters suggested vegetarians took B12 and iron supplements and get sufficient protein from nuts and beans.


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Study: Vegetarian women are at higher risk of hip fracture than habitual meat eaters | News

Aug 12, 2022, 01:43PM ISTSource: ANI

According to research of over 26,000 middle-aged UK women, vegetarians have a 33% higher risk of hip fracture than habitual meat eaters. Among 26,318 women, 822 hip fracture cases were observed over roughly 20 years – that represented just over 3% of the sample population. After adjustment for factors such as smoking and age, vegetarians were the only diet group with an elevated risk of hip fracture. The scientists stress the need for more research into the exact causes of why vegetarians were at a greater risk of hip fracture. However, it is concerning that vegetarian diets often have lower intakes of nutrients that are linked with bone and muscle health. These types of nutrients generally are more abundant in meat and other animal products than in plants, such as protein, calcium, and other micronutrients. Low intake of these nutrients can lead to lower bone mineral density and muscle mass, which can make you more susceptible to hip fracture risk. This makes it especially important for further research to better understand factors driving the increased risk in vegetarians, whether it be particular nutrient deficiencies or weight management, so that we can help people to make healthy choices. Plant-based diets growing in popularity There is also a worldwide call for reducing the consumption of animal products in an effort to tackle climate change. “Plant-based diets have been linked with poor bone health, but there has been a lack of evidence on the links to hip fracture risk. This study is an important step in understanding the potential risk plant-based diets could present over the long-term and what can be done to mitigate those risks. This study is just part of the wider picture of diet and healthy bones and muscles in older age. Further research is needed to confirm whether there could be similar results in men, to explore the role of body weight, and to identify the reasons for different outcomes in vegetarians and meat-eaters.




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Whole Foods founder John Mackey lines up vegetarian restaurant chain

The co-founder of high-end US grocer Whole Foods Market, John Mackey, is planning a second act when he retires from the Amazon-owned grocer next month: building a chain of plant-based restaurants and wellness centres that offer fitness and spa services.

orporate records list Mr Mackey, 68, as a partner in Healthy America, a startup that raised about $31m (€30.3m) from investors earlier this year and aims to launch a “national network” of medical wellness centres and vegetarian restaurants.

One now-closed job posting calls the venture “an evidence-based lifestyle company, leading the convergence of culinary, healthcare, and wellness. For the first time ever, we are bringing together all three under one roof, to meaningfully transform the health and wellbeing of individuals”. The posting envisions Healthy America offering both a membership program and a-la-carte public access to its facilities.

Incorporated in 2020, Healthy America is based in Austin, Texas, like Whole Foods and staffed by veterans of the high-end grocer. Its chief executive officer is Betsy Foster, a long-time executive who left Whole Foods in 2020. Walter Robb, Whole Foods’ co-CEO when he departed in 2017, is listed alongside Mr Mackey as a partner. Former executives from Whole Foods’ store development, finance and human-resources departments have also joined the startup, according to their LinkedIn profiles.

Robin Kelly, a spokesperson for the new venture who previously worked in public relations at Whole Foods, declined to comment.

The first Health America location, under the brand Love Life!, is expected to be in southern California, according to a person familiar with the plans.

A bare-bones Love Life website teases a 2023 launch date and asks visitors to sign up for updates.


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Vegetarian Women Are At Higher Risk Of Hip Fracture Than Habitual Meat Eaters, Says Study

According to research of over 26,000 middle-aged UK women, vegetarians have a 33% higher risk of hip fracture than habitual meat eaters.

University of Leeds research, published in the journal BMC Medicine, investigated the risk of hip fracture in occasional meat-eaters; pescatarians, people who eat fish but not meat; and vegetarians compared to regular meat-eaters.

Among 26,318 women, 822 hip fracture cases were observed over roughly 20 years – that represented just over 3% of the sample population. After adjustment for factors such as smoking and age, vegetarians were the only diet group with an elevated risk of hip fracture.

This study is one of very few studies to compare risk of hip fracture in vegetarians and meat-eaters where the occurrence of hip fracture was confirmed from hospital records.

The scientists stress the need for more research into the exact causes of why vegetarians were at a greater risk of hip fracture.

Vegetarian diets can be ‘healthy or unhealthy’

Study lead author James Webster, a doctoral researcher from the School of Food Science and Nutrition at Leeds, said: “Our study highlights potential concerns regarding risk of hip fracture in women who have a vegetarian diet. However, it is not warning people to abandon vegetarian diets. As with any diet, it is important to understand personal circumstances and what nutrients are needed for a balanced healthy lifestyle.

“Vegetarian diets can vary widely from person to person and can be healthy or unhealthy, just like diets that include animal products.

“However, it is concerning that vegetarian diets often have lower intakes of nutrients that are linked with bone and muscle health. These types of nutrients generally are more abundant in meat and other animal products than in plants, such as protein, calcium, and other micronutrients.

“Low intake of these nutrients can lead to lower bone mineral density and muscle mass, which can make you more susceptible to hip fracture risk. This makes it especially important for further research to better understand factors driving the increased risk in vegetarians, whether it be particular nutrient deficiencies or weight management, so that we can help people to make healthy choices.”

Plant-based diets growing in popularity

Vegetarian diets have gained popularity in recent years, with a 2021 YouGov survey putting the size of the UK vegetarian population at roughly 5-7%. It is often perceived as a healthier dietary option, with previous evidence that shows a vegetarian diet can reduce the risks of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer compared to omnivorous diets.

There is also a worldwide call for reducing the consumption of animal products in an effort to tackle climate change.

Understanding hip fracture risk in vegetarians is therefore becoming increasingly important to public health.

Study co-author Professor Janet Cade, leader of the Nutritional Epidemiology Group in the School of Food Science and Nutrition at Leeds, said: “Hip fracture is a global health issue with high economic costs that causes loss of independence, reduces quality of life, and increases risk of other health issues.

“Plant-based diets have been linked with poor bone health, but there has been a lack of evidence on the links to hip fracture risk. This study is an important step in understanding the potential risk plant-based diets could present over the long-term and what can be done to mitigate those risks.”

The team used data from the UK Women’s Cohort Study to investigate possible links between diet and hip fracture risk. The national cohort of middle-aged women was established at the University of Leeds to explore links between diet and chronic disease, encompassing a wide range of different eating patterns. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire and was validated using a 4-day food diary in a subsample of women.

At the time they were recruited into the cohort study, the women ranged in age from 35 to 69 years.

Effect of low BMI

The research team found that the average BMI among vegetarians was slightly lower than the average among the regular meat eaters. Previous research has shown a link between low BMI and a high risk of hip fracture.

Lower BMI can indicate people are underweight, which can mean poorer bone and muscle health, and higher risk of hip fracture. Further investigation is needed to determine if low BMI is the reason for the observed higher risk in vegetarians.

Study co-author, Dr Darren Greenwood, a biostatistician in the School of Medicine at Leeds, said: “This study is just part of the wider picture of diet and healthy bones and muscles in older age.

“Further research is needed to confirm whether there could be similar results in men, to explore the role of body weight, and to identify the reasons for different outcomes in vegetarians and meat-eaters.”


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Vegetarian Women Have Increased Risk of Hip Fracture | Health

THURSDAY, Aug. 11, 2022 (HealthDay News) — Compared with regular meat eaters, vegetarians, but not occasional meat eaters or pescatarians, have increased risk of hip fracture, according to a study of women in the United Kingdom published online Aug. 11 in BMC Medicine.

James Webster, Ph.D., from the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom, and colleagues classified U.K. women, aged 35 to 69 years, as regular meat eaters (at least five servings/week), occasional meat eaters (fewer than five servings/week), pescatarian, or vegetarian based on a validated food frequency questionnaire. The association with incident hip fractures was examined over a median follow-up of 22.3 years.

The researchers observed 822 hip fractures among 26,318 women (556,331 person-years). Compared with regular meat eaters, the risk of hip fracture was increased for vegetarians (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.71), but not occasional meat eaters (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.18) or pescatarians (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.26) after adjustment for confounders. No clear evidence was seen for effect modification by body mass index (BMI) in any diet group.

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“Further research exploring the roles of BMI and nutrients abundant in animal-sourced foods is recommended so that public health interventions and policy guidelines aiming to reduce hip fracture risk in vegetarians through dietary change or weight management can be formed,” the authors write.


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No meat, no eggs allowed on India’s first vegetarian train – News

Certification is given to vehicles that pass evaluation



By Web Desk

Published: Thu 11 Aug 2022, 3:20 PM

Travellers on the Vande Bharat Express from Delhi to Katra in Jammu and Kashmir will be in a completely vegetarian environment, according to media reports.

The meals served on the train area vegetarian, but that is not all. The kitchens used for preparation also have only vegetarian ingredients, and the waiters do not handle any non-vegetarian food either.

The train is the first one in the country to be given a Sattvik certificate, as part of an agreement between Indian railways authority IRCTC and the NGO Sattvic Council of India.

According to a Sattvic Council of India analyst, there are plans to replicate this in 18 more trains.

According to the founder of the Council, Abhishek Biswas, several factors are evaluated before the certificate is granted. These include cooking techniques, kitchens, serving and storage vessels, and methods of storage.

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Women who eat vegetarian diets at higher risk for hip fracture

Women who eat vegetarian diets at higher risk for hip fracture
Middle-aged women who never eat meat may be more likely to break a hip than women who regularly consume meat and/or fish, a new study found. Photo by RitaE/Pixabay

Record numbers of people are turning to plant-based diets to take advantage of the many health benefits they offer, but this may come at the expense of their bones, a new study suggests.

Exactly what did researchers find? Middle-aged women who never eat meat may be more likely to break a hip than women who regularly consume meat and/or fish.

More study is needed to understand why vegetarians seem to be at greater risk for hip fractures, but researchers suspect that low body mass index (BMI) and nutrient shortfalls play a role.

“Whilst a lower BMI is beneficial for many health conditions, being underweight can lead to insufficient fat mass, and poor bone and muscle health, which can each increase hip fracture risk,” said study author James Webster. He is a doctoral researcher from the School of Food Science and Nutrition at the University of Leeds in England. BMI is an estimate of body fat based on weight and height. The average BMI of vegetarians in the study was slightly lower than that of meat eaters.

“People with less fat mass have less cushioning during falls, and falls account for 90% of hip fractures,” he explained.

Meat and fish are also excellent sources of several nutrients for bone health, including protein, vitamin B12 and vitamin D.

“It is possible to get most of these nutrients from plant sources, eggs and dairy products, [but] previous studies have found lower intakes of these nutrients in vegetarians,” Webster said. In the study, vegetarians had lower intakes of protein and vitamin B12 than folks who ate meat five or more times each week.

In the study, researchers looked at rates of hip fractures in over 26,000 women aged 35 to 69 who ate meat no more than four times a week (occasional meat eaters); pescatarians who ate fish but not meat; vegetarians; and regular meat-eaters who consumed meat at least five times a week. The women filled out food frequency questionnaires, and these were compared against hospital records to see who suffered a hip fracture. During about 20 years of follow-up, there were 822 hip fractures.

Vegetarians were the only group who had an elevated risk of hip fracture once researchers controlled for other factors known to increase this risk, including smoking status and physical activity level.

The findings were published online Thursday in the journal BMC Medicine.

There are steps that vegetarians can take to better protect their bones while enjoying the heart and other health benefits of a plant-based diet, Webster said. This starts with maintaining a healthy weight, which increases the likelihood of healthy bones and muscles, and helps to reduce hip fracture risk.

Eating lots of fruits and vegetables, nuts, legumes, beans and whole grains provides most of the nutrients needed for bone health and fracture prevention, he added.

Consider fortified foods and supplements, too, he suggested. “Eating foods fortified with key nutrients or taking nutritional supplements can also help avoid nutritional deficiencies, particularly for vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids, which are difficult to get from plant foods directly,” Webster said.

Avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, while getting regular exercise, can also help keep bones strong. “Resistance exercise, where you lift or pull against resistance, such as weight training, may be particularly beneficial through increasing bone and muscle strength,” Webster said.

New Austrian research published last week backs up this advice: Vegans who lift weights or do strength training have stronger bones than vegans who only do other forms of exercise, such as biking or swimming.

Dietitians not involved with the new study pointed out that building strong and healthy bones involves more than just getting enough calcium.

Magnesium, potassium, boron, zinc, copper, manganese, vitamin D and vitamin K2 are also important, said Robin Foroutan, a New York dietitian.

“Protein is critically important to building a strong and flexible bone matrix,” she said. “Vegetarian sources of protein may be more difficult to digest and absorb for some people, which makes the protein less bioavailable.”

Focusing on high-quality sources of vegetarian protein, as well as dark leafy greens, nuts, seeds and other high-mineral plant foods, can support healthy bones, Foroutan said.

Lona Sandon, program director of clinical nutrition in the School of Health Professions at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, agreed.

Her advice to vegetarians? “Aim for plenty of quality protein from eggs and dairy sources if they are willing to include these in their diet,” Sandon said. If not, up your bean, legume, nut, nut butter and seed intake to assure adequate amounts of all the bone-building nutrients beyond calcium.

Marion Nestle, a retired professor of nutrition, food studies, and public health at New York University, cautioned that more research is needed before drawing any conclusions about fracture risk in vegetarians.

“Vegetarians who don’t eat red meat but eat other animal products should be at no higher risk for bone fractures,” she said, but underweight vegans, however, could be missing essential nutrients.

More information

Learn more about how to eat a healthy vegetarian diet at the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

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